OPEN Foundation

Psychopharmacology

Hallucinations Under Psychedelics and in the Schizophrenia Spectrum: An Interdisciplinary and Multiscale Comparison

Abstract

The recent renaissance of psychedelic science has reignited interest in the similarity of drug-induced experiences to those more commonly observed in psychiatric contexts such as the schizophrenia-spectrum. This report from a multidisciplinary working group of the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research (ICHR) addresses this issue, putting special emphasis on hallucinatory experiences. We review evidence collected at different scales of understanding, from pharmacology to brain-imaging, phenomenology and anthropology, highlighting similarities and differences between hallucinations under psychedelics and in the schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Finally, we attempt to integrate these findings using computational approaches and conclude with recommendations for future research.

Leptourgos, P., Fortier-Davy, M., Carhart-Harris, R., Corlett, P. R., Dupuis, D., Halberstadt, A. L., Kometer, M., Kozakova, E., LarØi, F., Noorani, T. N., Preller, K. H., Waters, F., Zaytseva, Y., & Jardri, R. (2020). Hallucinations Under Psychedelics and in the Schizophrenia Spectrum: An Interdisciplinary and Multiscale Comparison. Schizophrenia bulletin, 46(6), 1396–1408. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa117

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Kinetic profile of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and β-carbolines in saliva and serum after oral administration of ayahuasca in a religious context

Ayahuasca is a beverage obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi plus Psychotria viridis. B. caapi contains the β-carbolines harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine that are monoamine oxidase inhibitors and P. viridis contains N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) that is responsible for the visionary effects of the beverage. Ayahuasca use is becoming a global phenomenon, and the recreational use of DMT and similar alkaloids has also increased in recent years; such uncontrolled use can lead to severe intoxications. In this investigation, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to study the kinetics of alkaloids over a 24 h period in saliva and serum of 14 volunteers who consumed ayahuasca twice a month in a religious context. We compared the area under the curve (AUC), maximum concentration (Cmax ), time to reach Cmax (Tmax ), mean residence time (MRT), and half-life (t1/2 ), as well as the serum/saliva ratios of these parameters. DMT and β-carboline concentrations (Cmax ) and AUC were higher in saliva than in serum and the MRT was 1.5-3.0 times higher in serum. A generalized estimation equations (GEEs) model suggested that serum concentrations could be predicted by saliva concentrations, despite large individual variability in the saliva and serum alkaloid concentrations. The possibility of using saliva as a biological matrix to detect DMT, β-carbolines, and their derivatives is very interesting because it allows fast noninvasive sample collection and could be useful for detecting similar alkaloids used recreationally that have considerable potential for intoxication.

Lanaro, R., Mello, S. M., da Cunha, K. F., Silveira, G., Corrêa-Neto, N. F., Hyslop, S., Cabrices, O. G., Costa, J. L., & Linardi, A. (2021). Kinetic profile of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and β-carbolines in saliva and serum after oral administration of ayahuasca in a religious context. Drug testing and analysis, 13(3), 664–678. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2955

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Effect of Ketamine on Rumination in Treatment-Resistant Depressive Patients

Abstract

Background: A rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine has repeatedly been documented in the literature, and identifying clinical features associated with a better response to this treatment is currently an essential question. Considering the relationship between rumination and depression and the need to identify potential predictors of response to ketamine, we analyzed the effect of a single injection of ketamine 0.5 mg/kg on rumination in treatment-resistant depressive (TRD) patients and explored whether baseline ruminative style and early improvements of rumination would predict a greater antidepressant effect of ketamine.

Methods: Ten TRD outpatients who participated in a 4-week open study on the antidepressant effect of ketamine also completed the Ruminative Response Scale the day before, the day after, and a week after ketamine administration.

Results: We found that in our patients, a single rapid 1-minute intravenous injection of ketamine 0.5 mg/kg was efficacious in reducing rumination, but neither severity of rumination at baseline nor early improvements of rumination after ketamine injection predicted antidepressant response.

Conclusions: Our preliminary data suggest that a single injection of ketamine 0.5 mg/kg can be efficacious in reducing rumination in TRD patients but rumination does not seem to be a useful clinical predictor of response to ketamine. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these results.

Vidal, S., Jermann, F., Aubry, J. M., Richard-Lepouriel, H., & Kosel, M. (2020). Effect of Ketamine on Rumination in Treatment-Resistant Depressive Patients. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 40(6), 607–610. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001305

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Neurocognitive impact of ketamine treatment in major depressive disorder: A review on human and animal studies – PubMed

Abstract

Background: Most recent evidence support a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of intravenous ketamine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, clinical and animal studies investigating the effects of intravenous ketamine on specific functional domains disrupted by depression reported conflicting results. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the recent findings exploring the cognitive effects of ketamine in depression.
Methods: After a bibliographic search on PubMed, Medline and PsycInfo, we retrieved 11 original studies meeting our research criteria, 7 in humans with MDD or Treatment Resistant Disorder and 4 using rats models for depression.
Results: Overall the results showed that a) ketamine reduced activation and normalized connectivity measures of several brain regions related to depressive behaviors and reversed deficits in cognitive flexibility and coping response strategy in rats with depressive features, and b) ketamine leads to a no significant impairment on neurocognitive functions in most of the studies, with only three studies observing improvements in speed of processing, verbal learning, sustained attention and response control, verbal and working memory.
Limitations: The methodological heterogeneity, in terms of neuropsychological tests used and cognitive domain explored, of the studies included.
Conclusions: Most of the studies included showed no significant cognitive impairments in MDD patients after ketamine treatment. Furthermore, the results of the fMRI studies considered suggest that ketamine may have a normalizing effect on brain functions during attentional and emotional processing in MDD patients. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary evidences.
Crisanti, C., Enrico, P., Fiorentini, A., Delvecchio, G., & Brambilla, P. (2020). Neurocognitive impact of ketamine treatment in major depressive disorder: A review on human and animal studies. Journal of Affective Disorders., 10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.119
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Population Pharmacokinetics of Esketamine Nasal Spray and its Metabolite Noresketamine in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression

Abstract

Background: Esketamine nasal spray is approved for treatment-resistant depression.

Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of esketamine and noresketamine in healthy subjects and patients with treatment-resistant depression.

Methods: Esketamine and noresketamine were measured in > 9000 plasma samples collected from 820 individuals who received esketamine by the intranasal, intravenous, and oral routes. An open linear model for esketamine (three compartments) and noresketamine (two compartments) that included a hepato-portal compartment was developed using NONMEM® VII. The effects of covariates on esketamine pharmacokinetics and a model evaluation were performed using conventional methods.

Results: The fraction of a 28-mg intranasal dose absorbed through the nasal cavity (FRn) is 54% (100% of this fraction is completely absorbed); the remaining 46% is swallowed and undergoes intestinal and first-pass metabolism and 18.6% of the swallowed dose reaches the systemic circulation. The absolute bioavailability of 56 and 84 mg of intranasal esketamine is 54 and 51%, respectively. Esketamine volume at steady state and clearance were 752 L and 114 L/h, respectively. Noresketamine volume at steady state and apparent clearance were 185 L and 38 L/h, respectively. Relative to non-Asian subjects, Asian subjects showed a 64.0 and 19.4% decrease in the esketamine elimination rate constant and noresketamine apparent clearance, respectively. Japanese subjects exhibited a 34% increase in FRn vs other races. Hepatic blood flow decreased by 21.9 L/h for each decade in age in subjects aged > 60 years. These changes resulted in esketamine and noresketamine maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve after 24 h post-dose values that were up to 36% higher than those observed in other races or in younger adult subjects.

Conclusions: Esketamine and noresketamine pharmacokinetics was successfully characterized in healthy subjects and patients with treatment-resistant depression. The model quantified esketamine absolute nasal and oral bioavailability, its hepatic flow-limited clearance and biotransformation to the major metabolite noresketamine, and the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on esketamine pharmacokinetics. Clinical trials registration numbers of the studies included in the analysis: ESKETINTRD1001 (NCT01780259), ESKETINTRD1002 (NCT01980303), ESKETINTRD1003 (NCT02129088), ESKETINTRD1008 (NCT02846519), ESKETINTRD1009 (NCT02343289), ESKETINTRD1010 (NCT02568176), ESKETINTRD1012 (NCT02345148), 54135419TRD1015 (NCT02682225), ESKETINTRD2003 (NCT01998958), ESKETINSUI2001 (NCT02133001), ESKETINTRD3001 (NCT02417064), ESKETINTRD3002 (NCT02418585), and ESKETINTRD3005 (NCT02422186).

Perez-Ruixo, C., Rossenu, S., Zannikos, P., Nandy, P., Singh, J., Drevets, W. C., & Perez-Ruixo, J. J. (2021). Population Pharmacokinetics of Esketamine Nasal Spray and its Metabolite Noresketamine in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression. Clinical pharmacokinetics, 60(4), 501–516. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40262-020-00953-4

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Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics of Ayahuasca Alkaloids N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), Harmine, Harmaline and Tetrahydroharmine: Clinical and Forensic Impact

Abstract

Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic botanical beverage originally used by indigenous Amazonian tribes in religious ceremonies and therapeutic practices. While ethnobotanical surveys still indicate its spiritual and medicinal uses, consumption of ayahuasca has been progressively related with a recreational purpose, particularly in Western societies. The ayahuasca aqueous concoction is typically prepared from the leaves of the N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Psychotria viridis, and the stem and bark of Banisteriopsis caapi, the plant source of harmala alkaloids. Herein, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of the psychoactive DMT and harmala alkaloids harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine, are comprehensively covered, particularly emphasizing the psychological, physiological, and toxic effects deriving from their concomitant intake. Potential therapeutic utility, particularly in mental and psychiatric disorders, and forensic aspects of DMT and ayahuasca are also reviewed and discussed. Following administration of ayahuasca, DMT is rapidly absorbed and distributed. Harmala alkaloids act as potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), preventing extensive first-pass degradation of DMT into 3-indole-acetic acid (3-IAA), and enabling sufficient amounts of DMT to reach the brain. DMT has affinity for a variety of serotonergic and non-serotonergic receptors, though its psychotropic effects are mainly related with the activation of serotonin receptors type 2A (5-HT2A). Mildly to rarely severe psychedelic adverse effects are reported for ayahuasca or its alkaloids individually, but abuse does not lead to dependence or tolerance. For a long time, the evidence has pointed to potential psychotherapeutic benefits in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders; and although misuse of ayahuasca has been diverting attention away from such clinical potential, research onto its therapeutic effects has now strongly resurged.

Brito-da-Costa, A. M., Dias-da-Silva, D., Gomes, N., Dinis-Oliveira, R. J., & Madureira-Carvalho, Á. (2020). Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics of Ayahuasca Alkaloids N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), Harmine, Harmaline and Tetrahydroharmine: Clinical and Forensic Impact. Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 13(11), 334. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110334

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A mechanistic model of the neural entropy increase elicited by psychedelic drugs

Abstract

Psychedelic drugs, including lysergic acid diethylamide and other agonists of the serotonin 2A receptor (5HT2A-R), induce drastic changes in subjective experience, and provide a unique opportunity to study the neurobiological basis of consciousness. One of the most notable neurophysiological signatures of psychedelics, increased entropy in spontaneous neural activity, is thought to be of relevance to the psychedelic experience, mediating both acute alterations in consciousness and long-term effects. However, no clear mechanistic explanation for this entropy increase has been put forward so far. We sought to do this here by building upon a recent whole-brain model of serotonergic neuromodulation, to study the entropic effects of 5HT2A-R activation. Our results reproduce the overall entropy increase observed in previous experiments in vivo, providing the first model-based explanation for this phenomenon. We also found that entropy changes were not uniform across the brain: entropy increased in some regions and decreased in others, suggesting a topographical reconfiguration mediated by 5HT2A-R activation. Interestingly, at the whole-brain level, this reconfiguration was not well explained by 5HT2A-R density, but related closely to the topological properties of the brain’s anatomical connectivity. These results help us understand the mechanisms underlying the psychedelic state and, more generally, the pharmacological modulation of whole-brain activity.

Herzog, R., Mediano, P., Rosas, F. E., Carhart-Harris, R., Perl, Y. S., Tagliazucchi, E., & Cofre, R. (2020). A mechanistic model of the neural entropy increase elicited by psychedelic drugs. Scientific reports, 10(1), 17725. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74060-6

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Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Microdoses in Healthy Participants

Abstract

“Microdoses” of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) are used recreationally to enhance mood and cognition. Increasing interest has also been seen in developing LSD into a medication. Therefore, we performed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study using very low doses of LSD. Single doses of LSD base (5, 10, and 20 µg) and placebo were administered in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 23 healthy participants. Test days were separated by at least 5 days. Plasma levels of LSD and subjective effects were assessed up to 6 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental modeling. Concentration-subjective effect relationships were described using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. Mean (95% confidence interval) maximal LSD concentrations were 151 pg/mL (127-181), 279 pg/mL (243-320), and 500 pg/mL (413-607) after 5, 10, and 20 µg LSD administration, respectively. Maximal concentrations were reached after 1.1 hours. The mean elimination half-life was 2.7 hours (1.5-6.2). The 5 µg dose of LSD elicited no significant acute subjective effects. The 10 µg dose of LSD significantly increased ratings of “under the influence” and “good drug effect” compared with placebo. These effects began an average of 1.1 hours after 10 µg LSD administration, peaked at 2.5 hours, and ended at 5.1 hours. The 20 µg dose of LSD significantly increased ratings of “under the influence,” “good drug effects,” and “bad drug effects.” LSD concentrations dose-proportionally increased at doses as low as 5-20 µg and decreased with a half-life of 3 hours. The threshold dose of LSD base for psychotropic effects was 10 µg.

Holze, F., Liechti, M. E., Hutten, N., Mason, N. L., Dolder, P. C., Theunissen, E. L., Duthaler, U., Feilding, A., Ramaekers, J. G., & Kuypers, K. (2021). Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Microdoses in Healthy Participants. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 109(3), 658–666. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2057

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Mood and cognition after administration of low LSD doses in healthy volunteers: A placebo controlled dose-effect finding study

Abstract

There is a popular interest in microdosing with psychedelics such as LSD. This practice of using one-tenth of a full psychedelic dose according to a specific dosing schedule, anecdotally enhances mood and performance. Nonetheless, controlled research on the efficacy of microdosing is scarce. The main objective of the present dose-finding study was to determine the minimal dose of LSD needed to affect mood and cognition. A placebo-controlled within-subject study including 24 healthy participants, was conducted to assess the acute effects of three LSD doses (5, 10, and 20 mcg) on measures of cognition, mood, and subjective experience, up until 6 h after administration. Cognition and subjective experience were assessed using the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Cognitive Control Task, Profile of Mood States, and 5-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness rating scale. LSD showed positive effects in the majority of observations by increasing positive mood (20 mcg), friendliness (5, 20 mcg), arousal (5 mcg), and decreasing attentional lapses (5, 20 mcg). Negative effects manifested as an increase in confusion (20 mcg) and anxiety (5, 20 mcg). Psychedelic-induced changes in waking consciousness were also present (10, 20 mcg). Overall, the present study demonstrated selective, beneficial effects of low doses of LSD on mood and cognition in the majority of observations. The minimal LSD dose at which subjective and performance effects are notable is 5 mcg and the most apparent effects were visible after 20 mcg.

Hutten, N., Mason, N. L., Dolder, P. C., Theunissen, E. L., Holze, F., Liechti, M. E., Feilding, A., Ramaekers, J. G., & Kuypers, K. (2020). Mood and cognition after administration of low LSD doses in healthy volunteers: A placebo controlled dose-effect finding study. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 41, 81–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.10.002

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Psilocybin exerts distinct effects on resting state networks associated with serotonin and dopamine in mice

Abstract

Hallucinogenic agents have been proposed as potent antidepressants; this includes the serotonin (5-HT) receptor 2A agonist psilocybin. In human subjects, psilocybin alters functional connectivity (FC) within the default-mode network (DMN), a constellation of inter-connected regions that displays altered FC in depressive disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of psilocybin on FC across the entire brain with a view to investigate underlying mechanisms. Psilocybin effects were investigated in lightly-anaesthetized mice using resting-state fMRI. Dual-regression analysis identified reduced FC within the ventral striatum in psilocybin- relative to vehicle-treated mice. Refinement of the analysis using spatial references derived from both gene expression maps and viral tracer projection fields revealed two distinct effects of psilocybin: it increased FC between 5-HT-associated networks and cortical areas, including elements of the murine DMN, thalamus, and midbrain; it decreased FC within dopamine (DA)-associated striatal networks. These results suggest that interactions between 5-HT- and DA-regulated neural networks contribute to the neural and therefore psychological effects of psilocybin. Furthermore, they highlight how information on molecular expression patterns and structural connectivity can assist in the interpretation of pharmaco-fMRI findings.

Grandjean, J., Buehlmann, D., Buerge, M., Sigrist, H., Seifritz, E., Vollenweider, F. X., Pryce, C. R., & Rudin, M. (2021). Psilocybin exerts distinct effects on resting state networks associated with serotonin and dopamine in mice. NeuroImage, 225, 117456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117456

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