OPEN Foundation

Psychotherapy

Truffle therapy in the Netherlands is running ahead of the science

The promising results of psychedelic treatments in small scale clinical trials are feeding an emergent health and wellness industry around these substances. The Netherlands, where psilocybin truffles remain unregulated, has become fertile ground for entrepreneurs aiming to position themselves at the cutting-edge of the psychedelic medicine market. Even though most of these psychedelic retreats cater to healthy participants, an increasing number of companies are planning to offer truffle sessions as psychedelic therapy to psychiatric patients. At the current stage, when scientific evidence proves promising but not yet conclusive, researchers are worried about the risks of commercial providers running ahead of the ongoing research. Should companies tread more carefully and let clinical researchers take the lead in the development of psychedelic therapy?
Psilocybin in the Netherlands
Psilocybin is a controlled substance in the Netherlands and the possession and sale of any species of psilocybin containing mushrooms is forbidden. However, this regulation does not apply to truffles, given that these are not strictly mushrooms but a different part of the fungus. This legal loophole has allowed the spread of psychedelic retreat centers offering truffle ceremonies for self-development or spiritual purposes.
Even though truffles qualify as a legal food in the Netherlands, they cannot be advertised as a medical treatment. The Dutch Health and Youth Care Inspectorate (IGJ) states that truffles may fall under the regulatory scope of the Medicines Act if medical claims are made. “In that case, we qualify the truffles as a medicine, for which no trade permit has been granted in the Netherlands”, an IGJ spokesperson declared .
Most entrepreneurs, aware of the existing regulation, avoid making explicit medical claims when advertising their services and try to use terms like “inner healing” and “personal development” instead. Many also warn that their ceremonies are not meant to substitute medical or psychotherapeutic care and make an effort to exclude clients with mental diagnoses and possible physical risks from participating through careful health screening.
This is, however, not always the case. The clinical director of a new truffle clinic recently declared to Dutch media: “We administer truffles to people in order to make them feel better and to overcome psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety and stress”. Others openly claim to provide “psychedelic-assisted therapy” on their websites and display the available scientific evidence to illustrate its efficacy in the treatment of depression, addiction or PTSD. We asked Nick (whose real name is not disclosed) about the apparent targeting of mental health patients on his retreat center’s website. “We are not pretending to treat or cure PTSD”, he assured, “we are acknowledging that there are people who have PTSD and that those clients that we have received (and not targeted) had very beneficial experiences”.

Interview with Dutch psychedelic researcher Tijmen Bostoen

The hype around psychedelics is sparking a race among startups to become pioneers of a new therapeutic or wellness market, the boundaries are not always clear. But the emergence of truffle therapy is not just about opportunistic entrepreneurship. The mainstreaming of psychedelics is also bringing some of the underground therapists to the surface and from their perspective, there might not be meaningful reasons to wait for approval and regulation. Peter (whose real name is not disclosed) has conducted truffle therapy for the last eight years and more recently decided to start advertising their services online. “Back then we also thought we were moving too fast but people were really searching for this. We just couldn’t wait. Regulation can be helpful, but for a lot of us who already walked that path it’s not that great, especially for the ones who believe more in alternative therapies”.
The lack of formal regulation governing the profession has led some psychedelic guides in the Netherlands to found the Guild of Guides. This professional association is developing its own ethical codes in order to ensure best practices during psychedelic sessions. Peter also acknowledges the importance of the guild in the self-regulation of psychedelic facilitators. When it comes to offering therapy, however, their guidelines are unequivocal: “Guides do not claim to be psychedelic therapists nor offer ‘therapeutic’ services when they lack the appropriate accreditation.”
Scientists’ call for caution
A number of Dutch researchers and therapists are currently working on trials investigating the safety and efficacy of psilocybin for patients with treatment-resistant depression. They are concerned about commercial providers rushing to open up the market even before the scientific evidence is established. Clinical psychologist Jan Mars, therapist at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG), says: “I am not a supporter of this practice because we are still doing research right now and you don’t want to run ahead of the science”. Joost Breeksema, researcher at the UMCG and director of the OPEN Foundation, echoed similar concerns: “The main problem is that we don’t know yet if this can be done safely and if so, which patients might benefit and which may be more at risk. And we’re only talking about the treatment of depression, where clinical research with psilocybin is relatively advanced. Offering psilocybin truffles to treat PTSD is even more problematic, not just because of the nature of this disorder, but also because we lack solid research. I understand the need for better treatments, and the impatience of patients who’ve sometimes suffered for decades, but it’s unethical, unwise and irresponsible to experiment blindly with these powerful treatments.”
It is important to remark that most scientists and therapists see no harm in conducting truffle ceremonies with experienced guides outside the medical realm. Renske Blom, psychiatrist at GGZ Centraal and therapist at UMC Utrecht, noted: “Truffles are legally available in the Netherlands so they can be and are being offered for spiritual care, wellbeing and self-improvement”.
While there are signs to be hopeful about the potential of psychedelics for the future of mental health treatments, research has not yet offered conclusive evidence that would warrant safe and efficacious provision of psilocybin therapy. Two psilocybin trials so far have shown significant and long-term improvements for depression. However, these trials lacked placebo controls and the samples were pretty small. Several ongoing multisite trials with hundreds of participants will be able to give more reliable evidence about the therapeutic value of psilocybin. Nonetheless, these studies have not yet been completed and experts warn that it is precisely at this stage of drug development where most new pharmaceuticals fail. In the case of PTSD, larger studies are proving that MDMA-assisted psychotherapy may be useful, but not a single clinical trial has investigated psilocybin for this indication yet. In general, there are still a number of incognitas around safety, short- and long-term efficacy, relapse rates and the optimal amount of integration sessions.

Janis Phelps on training the first psychedelic therapists

One of the main concerns of researchers relates to the qualifications and therapeutic experience of these truffle providers. This is a complicated issue given that clinicians and researchers are still debating the adequate standards and training requirements for the certification of future psychedelic therapists. Some companies currently offering truffle therapy have a team of professionals with a background in mental health. In other cases, the psychotherapeutic and medical credentials of guides and their experience with disorders such as PTSD or depression are dubious.
The exposure of these sensitive populations to the intensity of the psychedelic experience can be risky if guides are not able to respond to the particular needs of psychiatric patients. In working with depression and psychedelics, Jan Mars emphasizes that “supporting a psychedelic journey is a humbling experience. You don’t know what is going to happen during the session. You can expect anything to happen,” and therefore, he adds, “It’s important that therapists know how to provide a safe environment. We still need much more experience and knowledge about how to work with patients who suffer from chronic psychological conditions. Trauma often lies beneath the surface and pops up during a session with psychedelics”. In regard to trauma therapy with these substances, Joost Breeksema adds: “Patients may relive traumatic moments, completely dissociate or become overwhelmed with fear and anxiety. This can be hard to handle even for an experienced therapist. Now imagine what happens with well-intended, but under-qualified and unprepared guides”.
Although these treatments are known to be generally safe in terms of toxicology and no serious adverse events are commonly reported in trials, their safety profile resides precisely in the close psychotherapeutic support and monitoring performed before, during and after psilocybin administration. Jan Mars hopes that in future clinical practice, “psychedelic journeys will be embedded in a safe and trusting therapeutic environment. These journeys are no magic bullets.”
In general, truffle providers understand the concerns of scientists, but they feel that the benefits of psilocybin treatment outweigh its risks. According to the clinical director of a truffle clinic, clients with depression may be thinking: “Damned! Science says that this can help me. It is not yet approved but there are places where it can be done safely so I am going to try”. From his own experience guiding sessions, Peter concluded that: “It all comes down to a balance between safety and effectiveness. We are all trying to find out, but at the moment psychedelic sessions do more to help people than to harm them”.
For psychiatric patients for whom other treatments have failed, this call for patience and caution may be difficult to accept. At the same time, they should be able to make informed decisions. Given the current exclusion criteria in psychedelic trials, researchers discourage patients with a history of personality or psychotic disorders from seeking these treatments at all. Jan Mars sends a piece of advice to those other patients without complex comorbidities who, despite potential risks, decide to seek truffle therapy: “Involve a loved one in the journey that you are about to embark on, for support before and after. Do some research on who is guiding it, what the setting will be like and whether there is enough time dedicated to the preparation of the session. Make sure that you feel you can trust the guide. If you have doubts, then there is probably a good reason for it, and it might not be a good idea.
The relation between retreat and research
Truffle therapists in the Netherlands definitely have clinical research on psilocybin as their reference of best practice. Nick explained: “We frame it in a therapeutic setting to optimize positive outcomes and keep clients safe”. Nonetheless, researchers remain skeptical about the degree to which truffle providers actually manage to screen out participants with mental diagnoses or maintain high standards of care. To be fair, even some research protocols could be criticized for including the minimal amount of preparation and integration sessions.

The biggest challenges for psychedelic science today

Besides the potential harm to patients, researchers also seem to be worried about the future of research itself. The controversial history of the field has made psychedelic scientists generally cautious about avoiding any kind of social backlash. An unfortunate incident with a patient could set back the progress made in the last years. Renske Blom added: “If a major incident happens in the context of these therapy sessions, inside or outside clinical trials, it could influence upcoming research as well”.
While acknowledging the importance of further research, Nick also stressed that “truffles were never researched. They cannot say that psilocybin session guides are too early. Actually, the research is late because more people trip on naturals than on lab-grade psilocybin”. Bearing in mind the likely pharmacological difference between the synthetic compound and whole truffles, the current research agenda may not represent the interests of truffle therapists. In other words, it is unclear whether research with pure psilocybin would ever be considered valid evidence to justify their practice. Joost Breeksema said: “We don’t really know what truffles contain because they haven’t been standardized or analyzed in the laboratory, but I do think that if psilocybin goes through the approval process, it is likely that people and investors will get interested in the whole product as well.”
Despite the rather marginal position of truffles in current research, some investigators have realized the potential role that the retreat ecosystem can play in psychedelic science. In collaboration with retreat centers, several research projects have administered questionnaires to participants to learn more about the effects of these substances and their ritual use on healthy people. These centers could also become a place where all kinds of alternative models of psychedelic care can develop. The rigid regulatory and scientific frameworks within which researchers operate may limit the possible treatment conditions. In contrast, retreats offer the chance to explore new experimental protocols such as group sessions or natural settings. Joost Breeksema said: “The retreats may offer an infrastructure that is better suited to the psychedelic experience than clinical hospital settings”.
Nick is enthusiastic about future collaborations: “We want to set up research at our centers and we would love to count on scientific organizations, so we can actually build up the science needed and move beyond this internal dialogue about truffle therapy.” Joost Breeksema adds: “If they do proper data collection and analysis, they can contribute to the body of knowledge about the potential effects and risks of psychedelics. There are definitely options for collaboration but it has to be done judiciously and cautiously.”
The medicalization of psilocybin appears to raise tensions among different stakeholders in the psychedelic field. In the eyes of researchers, the underground therapy scene and the booming industry around psychedelic medicine may entail risks for patients and for the public image of ongoing research. Hopefully, future collaborations between retreat centers and research teams may offer a way forward to generate the evidence needed for an eventual regulation of the medical, as well as the non-medical uses of psilocybin truffles. However, at this stage, the open commercialization of psychedelic therapy to potentially vulnerable patients may be an unwise step ahead.
Written by Alberto Cantizani López
Art by Anna Temczuk
*The names of all informants involved in the commercial provision of truffles as therapy have been omitted or replaced by pseudonyms

Therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics: A systematic review of modern-era clinical studies

Abstract

Objective: To conduct a systematic review of modern-era (post-millennium) clinical studies assessing the therapeutic effects of serotonergic psychedelics drugs for mental health conditions. Although the main focus was on efficacy and safety, study characteristics, duration of antidepressants effects across studies, and the role of the subjective drug experiences were also reviewed and presented.

Method: A systematic literature search (1 Jan 2000 to 1 May 2020) was conducted in PubMed and PsychINFO for studies of patients undergoing treatment with a serotonergic psychedelic.

Results: Data from 16 papers, representing 10 independent psychedelic-assisted therapy trials (psilocybin = 7, ayahuasca = 2, LSD = 1), were extracted, presented in figures and tables, and narratively synthesized and discussed. Across these studies, a total of 188 patients suffering either cancer- or illness-related anxiety and depression disorders (C/I-RADD), major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or substance use disorder (SUD) were included. The reviewed studies established feasibility and evidence of safety, alongside promising early data of efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, OCD, and tobacco and alcohol use disorders. For a majority of patients, the therapeutic effects appeared to be long-lasting (weeks-months) after only 1 to 3 treatment session(s). All studies were conducted in line with guidelines for the safe conduct of psychedelic therapy, and no severe adverse events were reported.

Conclusion: The resurrection of clinical psychedelic research provides early evidence for treatment efficacy and safety for a range of psychiatric conditions, and constitutes an exciting new treatment avenue in a health area with major unmet needs.

Andersen, K., Carhart-Harris, R., Nutt, D. J., & Erritzoe, D. (2021). Therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics: A systematic review of modern-era clinical studies. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 143(2), 101–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13249

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Psychedelic Psychiatry: Preparing for Novel Treatments Involving Altered States of Consciousness

Abstract

The past decade has seen a renaissance of research interest into the psychotherapeutic potential of psychedelic compounds. In 2019, Oakland and Denver became the first two jurisdictions in the United States to decriminalize the possession of psychedelic-containing organisms. As research and public policy continue to evolve, it becomes increasingly plausible that psychedelics will become viable treatment options for psychiatric conditions. Psychiatrists should be integral to models of psychedelic prescription and patient management. The risk for adverse psychological and medical effects from psychedelic sessions necessitates psychiatric supervision. The literature on psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy may provide wisdom regarding practical aspects of managing patients’ treatment sessions.

Holoyda B. (2020). Psychedelic Psychiatry: Preparing for Novel Treatments Involving Altered States of Consciousness. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.), 71(12), 1297–1299. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.202000213

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The emerging role of psilocybin and MDMA in the treatment of mental illness

Abstract

Introduction: Mental illness has a chronic course of illness with a number of clinical manifestations. Affected individuals experience significant functional, emotional, cognitive, and/or behavioral impairments. The growing prevalence of mental illness has been associated with significant social and economic costs. Indeed, the economic burden of mental illness is estimated to exceed $1.8 trillion USD over the next 30 years. A significant number of individuals affected by mental illness fail to respond to first-line treatment options. Therefore, there remains an unmet need for rapidly attenuating therapeutic options for mental health disorders with minimal social and economic burden.

Areas covered: The paucity of novel treatment options warrants a renewed investigation of psychedelic-based psychotherapy. Herein, the authors will evaluate the therapeutic potential of traditional psychedelics, psilocybin, and MDMA, in the treatment of mental illness with a narrative review of available literature.

Expert opinion: Psychedelics, such as psilocybin and MDMA, offer an alternative avenue of therapy for many mental health disorders. Available evidence indicates that psychedelics may offer a single-dose, rapid effect model that have robust effects with treatment-resistant mental disorders and a unique advantage as a possible monotherapy for mental illness. Novel clinical trials that evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy in clinically representative populations are warranted.

Gill, H., Gill, B., Chen-Li, D., El-Halabi, S., Rodrigues, N. B., Cha, D. S., Lipsitz, O., Lee, Y., Rosenblat, J. D., Majeed, A., Mansur, R. B., Nasri, F., Ho, R., & McIntyre, R. S. (2020). The emerging role of psilocybin and MDMA in the treatment of mental illness. Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 20(12), 1263–1273. https://doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2020.1826931

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Psilocybin-assisted group therapy for demoralized older long-term AIDS survivor men: An open-label safety and feasibility pilot study

Abstract

Background: Psilocybin therapy has shown promise as a rapid-acting treatment for depression, anxiety, and demoralization in patients with serious medical illness (e.g., cancer) when paired with individual psychotherapy. This study assessed the safety and feasibility of psilocybin-assisted group therapy for demoralization in older long-term AIDS survivor (OLTAS) men, a population with a high degree of demoralization and traumatic loss.

Methods: Self-identified gay men OLTAS with moderate-to-severe demoralization (Demoralization Scale-II ≥8) were recruited from the community of a major US city for a single-site open-label study of psilocybin-assisted group therapy comprising 8-10 group therapy visits and one psilocybin administration visit (0·3-0·36 mg/kg po). Primary outcomes were rate and severity of adverse events, and participant recruitment and retention. The primary clinical outcome was change in mean demoralization from baseline to end-of-treatment and to 3-month follow-up assessed with a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02950467).

Findings: From 17 July 2017 to 16 January 2019, 18 participants (mean age 59·2 years (SD 4·4)) were enrolled, administered group therapy and psilocybin, and included in intent-to-treat analyses. We detected zero serious adverse reactions and two unexpected adverse reactions to psilocybin; seven participants experienced self-limited, severe expected adverse reactions. We detected a clinically meaningful change in demoralization from baseline to 3-month follow-up (mean difference -5·78 [SD 6·01], ηp 2 = 0·47, 90% CI 0·21-0·60).

Interpretation: We demonstrated the feasibility, relative safety, and potential efficacy of psilocybin-assisted group therapy for demoralization in OLTAS. Groups may be an effective and efficient means of delivering psychotherapy pre- and post-psilocybin to patients with complex medical and psychiatric needs.

Anderson, B. T., Danforth, A., Daroff, P. R., Stauffer, C., Ekman, E., Agin-Liebes, G., Trope, A., Boden, M. T., Dilley, P. J., Mitchell, J., & Woolley, J. (2020). Psilocybin-assisted group therapy for demoralized older long-term AIDS survivor men: An open-label safety and feasibility pilot study. EClinicalMedicine, 27, 100538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100538

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Compassionate use of psychedelics

Abstract

In the present paper, we discuss the ethics of compassionate psychedelic psychotherapy and argue that it can be morally permissible. When talking about psychedelics, we mean specifically two substances: psilocybin and MDMA. When administered under supportive conditions and in conjunction with psychotherapy, therapies assisted by these substances show promising results. However, given the publicly controversial nature of psychedelics, compassionate psychedelic psychotherapy calls for ethical justification. We thus review the safety and efficacy of psilocybin- and MDMA-assisted therapies and claim that it can be rational for some patients to try psychedelic therapy. We think it can be rational despite the uncertainty of outcomes associated with compassionate use as an unproven treatment regime, as the expected value of psychedelic psychotherapy can be assessed and can outweigh the expected value of routine care, palliative care, or no care at all. Furthermore, we respond to the objection that psychedelic psychotherapy is morally impermissible because it is epistemically harmful. We argue that given the current level of understanding of psychedelics, this objection is unsubstantiated for a number of reasons, but mainly because there is no experimental evidence to suggest that epistemic harm actually takes place.
Greif, A., & Šurkala, M. (2020). Compassionate use of psychedelics. Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy.,
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Efficacy of Psychoactive Drugs for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review of MDMA, Ketamine, LSD and Psilocybin

Abstract

The aim of this systematic review was to examine the efficacy of MDMA, ketamine, LSD, and psilocybin for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A search of four databases for English language, peer-reviewed literature published from inception to 18th October 2019 yielded 2,959 records, 34 of which were screened on full-text. Observational studies and RCTs which tested the efficacy of MDMA, ketamine, LSD, or psilocybin for reducing PTSD symptoms in adults, and reported changes to PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology, were included. Nine trials (five ketamine and four MDMA) met inclusion criteria. Trials were rated on a quality and bias checklist and GRADE was used to rank the evidence. The evidence for ketamine as a stand-alone treatment for comorbid PTSD and depression was ranked “very low”, and the evidence for ketamine in combination with psychotherapy as a PTSD treatment was ranked “low”. The evidence for MDMA in combination with psychotherapy as a PTSD treatment was ranked “moderate”.

Varker, T., Watson, L., Gibson, K., Forbes, D., & O’Donnell, M. L. (2021). Efficacy of Psychoactive Drugs for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review of MDMA, Ketamine, LSD and Psilocybin. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 53(1), 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2020.1817639

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Beyond ecstasy: Alternative entactogens to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine with potential applications in psychotherapy

Abstract

The last two decades have seen a revival of interest in the entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) as an adjunct to psychotherapy, particularly for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. While clinical results are highly promising, and MDMA is expected to be approved as a treatment in the near future, it is currently the only compound in its class of action that is being actively investigated as a medicine. This lack of alternatives to MDMA may prove detrimental to patients who do not respond well to the particular mechanism of action of MDMA or whose treatment calls for a modification of MDMA’s effects. For instance, patients with existing cardiovascular conditions or with a prolonged history of stimulant drug use may not fit into the current model of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy, and could benefit from alternative drugs. This review examines the existing literature on a host of entactogenic drugs, which may prove to be useful alternatives in the future, paying particularly close attention to any neurotoxic risks, neuropharmacological mechanism of action and entactogenic commonalities with MDMA. The substances examined derive from the 1,3-benzodioxole, cathinone, benzofuran, aminoindane, indole and amphetamine classes. Several compounds from these classes are identified as potential alternatives to MDMA.

Oeri H. E. (2021). Beyond ecstasy: Alternative entactogens to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine with potential applications in psychotherapy. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 35(5), 512–536. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881120920420

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Psilocybin as a New Approach to Treat Depression and Anxiety in the Context of Life-Threatening Diseases-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials

Abstract

Psilocybin is a naturally occurring tryptamine known for its psychedelic properties. Recent research indicates that psilocybin may constitute a valid approach to treat depression and anxiety associated to life-threatening diseases. The aim of this work was to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of clinical trials to assess the therapeutic effects and safety of psilocybin on those medical conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure the effects in depression and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to measure the effects in anxiety. For BDI, 11 effect sizes were considered (92 patients) and the intervention group was significantly favored (WMD = -4.589; 95% CI = -4.207 to -0.971; p-value = 0.002). For STAI-Trait, 11 effect sizes were considered (92 patients), being the intervention group significantly favored when compared to the control group (WMD = -5.906; 95% CI = -7.852 to -3.960; p-value ˂ 0.001). For STAI-State, 9 effect sizes were considered (41 patients) and the intervention group was significantly favored (WMD = -6.032; 95% CI = -8.900 to -3.164; p-value ˂ 0.001). The obtained results are promising and emphasize the importance of psilocybin translational research in the management of symptoms of depression and anxiety, since the compound may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety in conditions that are either resistant to conventional pharmacotherapy or for which pharmacologic treatment is not yet approved. Moreover, it may be also relevant for first-line treatment, given its safety.

Vargas, A. S., Luís, Â., Barroso, M., Gallardo, E., & Pereira, L. (2020). Psilocybin as a New Approach to Treat Depression and Anxiety in the Context of Life-Threatening Diseases-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Biomedicines, 8(9), 331. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8090331

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Phytochemical, Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Psilocybe Natalensis Magic Mushroom

Abstract

Psilocybin-containing mushrooms, commonly known as magic mushrooms, have been used since ancient and recent times for depression and to improve quality of life. However, their anti-inflammatory properties are not known. The study aims at investing cytotoxicity; antioxidant; and, for the first time, anti-inflammatory effects of Psilocybe natalensis, a psilocybin-containing mushroom that grows in South Africa, on lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Macrophage cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and treated with different concentrations of Psilocybe natalensis mushroom extracted with boiling hot water, cold water and ethanol over 24 h. Quercetin and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester were used as positive controls. Effects of extracts on the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and cytokine activities were investigated. Phytochemical analysis, and the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of extracts, were determined. Results showed that the three extracts inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and interleukin 1β cytokine production significantly in a dose-dependent manner close to that of the positive controls. A study proposed that ethanol and water extracts of Psilocybe natalensis mushroom were safe at concentrations used, and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds in the mushroom extracts.

Nkadimeng, S. M., Nabatanzi, A., Steinmann, C. M., & Eloff, J. N. (2020). Phytochemical, Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Psilocybe Natalensis Magic Mushroom. Plants9(9), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091127

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