OPEN Foundation


Autistic Schizophrenic Children: An Experiment in the Use of D-Lysergic Acid Diethyladmide (LSD-25)


Since the hallucinogenic properties of D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) were accidentally discovered by Hoffman in 1943 there has been wide experimentation with the drug designed to test its properties both as a psychotomimetic and as a therapeutic agent. It has been considered by some investigators as having great value in revealing the nature of the schizophrenic state and thereby advancing the understanding that leads to progress in therapy. However, other investigators, while acknowledging the undoubted psychic effects of the drug, insist that the LSD experience cannot be equated with naturally occurring psychosis.1 It is not the first psychopharmaceutical agent to be used as an adjunct to psychotherapy; most of its predecessors were greeted with equal enthusiasm by some because of their action in unlocking the gates of repression and thus leading to disinhibition and catharsis. In fact, according to Hoch,2 careful studies…

Freedman, A. M., Ebin, E. V., & Wilson, E. A. (1962). Autistic schizophrenic children: An experiment in the use of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). Archives of General Psychiatry, 6(3), 203-213.
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Schizophrenia: A New Approach (Continued)


The authors discuss the last five years work of the Saskatchewan group and develop their hypothesis relating adrenaline metabolites to schizophrenia. They also discuss work done in other centres. They indicate some of the difficulties encountered not only in synthesizing adrenochrome and adrenolutin but also in working experimentally with them in human subjects. The successful synthesis of pure stable adrenochrome and adrenolutin has made chemical assay possible. Using their adrenochrome assay, they have found differences between adrenochrome metabolism in normals and schizophrenics. While these require exploration the authors believe that their hypothesis is strong enough to warrant attention or to see whether others can confirm their findings. While adrenochrome and adrenolutin are at present the only metabolites of adrenaline which can be obtained as pure stable compounds and have psychotomimetic properties, there is suggestive evidence that others will be found.

Osmond, H., & Hoffer, A. (1959). Schizophrenia: A new approach (continued). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 105(440), 653-673.
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Psychopathology and Psychophysiology of Minimal LSD-25 Dosage


Despite 14 years of investigation, as intensive as accorded any biologically active chemical, a gap remains in the systematic description of human response to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). The dramatic schizophrenic-like symptoms after doses of 40μg to 100μg have drawn the main interest. The threshold for activity is placed at 20μg by general consensus, while perfunctory administration of smaller doses has left their effect uncertain. Accompanying those pharmacologic demonstrations has been the controversy whether LSD symptoms simulate the psychopathology of schizophrenia1 or can be better explained as a toxic organic psychosis.2 One of these alternatives might be favored by its resemblance to the complete dosage-response relationship of LSD. It is unfortunate for analogical comparison that early stages of toxic psychosis have rarely been described in a psychopathological framework3; on the other hand, there is a firm basis for comparison with various schizophrenic processes. This preliminary note reports

Greiner, T., Burch, N. R., & Edelberg, R. (1958). Psychopathology and psychophysiology of minimal LSD-25 dosage: A preliminary dosage-response spectrum. AMA Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry79(2), 208-210., 10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340020088016
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11 December - Panel discussion on the Metaphysics of Psychedelic Experiences