OPEN Foundation

LSD

The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test

The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Tom Wolfe. Transworld Publishers. ISBN: 978-0552993661

Wolfe presents a firsthand account of the experiences of Ken Kesey and his band of Merry Pranksters, who traveled across the US in a colorfully painted school bus became famous for their use of psychedelic drugs such as LSD in order to achieve expansion of their consciousness. This book has long been considered one of the greatest books about the history of the hippie movement.

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LSD Psychotherapy: The Healing Potential of Psychedelic Medicine

LSD Psychotherapy: The Healing Potential of Psychedelic Medicine. Stanislav Grof. Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS). ISBN: 978-0979862205

Drawing on his 1960’s studies of LSD-assisted psychotherapy, Grof outlines a new cartography of the human mind, one which accounts for experiences such as shamanic trance, near-death experiences and altered states of consciousness. This vision is also the foundation for Dr. Grof’s revolutionary new Holotropic Breathwork.

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LSD, my problem child

LSD, My Problem Child. Albert Hofmann. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-0198840206

In a highly candid and personal account, the father of LSD details the history of his “problem child” and his long and fruitful career as a research chemist. An essential read for anyone wanting to learn about how LSD originated and Hofmann’s view on its transition to recreational use.

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The Acid Diaries: A Psychonaut’s Guide to the History and Use of LSD

The Acid Diaries: A Psychonaut’s Guide to the History and Use of LSD. Christopher Gray. Inner Traditions Bear and Company. ISBN: 978-1594773839

Details his experimentation with LSD over a period of three years and shares the startling realization that his visions were weaving an ongoing story from trip to trip. Gray makes the case that trips follow three stages. The first deals with personal issues and pre-birth consciousness; the second with ego-loss and the third with sacred and spiritual themes.

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Psychedelic Medicine: The Healing Powers of LSD, MDMA, Psilocybin, and Ayahuasca

PSYCHEDELIC MEDICINE: THE HEALING POWERS OF LSD, MDMA, PSILOCYBIN, AND AYAHUASCA. Dr. Richard Louis Miller. Park Street Press. ISBN: 978-1620556979

Clinical psychologist Dr. Richard Louis Miller discusses what is happening today in psychedelic medicine. Dr. Miller and his contributors explore the ongoing efforts to restore psychedelic therapies to the health field. They also discuss the newly shifting political climate and the push for new research, offering hope for an end to the War on Drugs and a potential renaissance of research into psychedelic medicines around the world.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After a Psychedelic Experience, a Case Report

Abstract

In the last 2 decades, there is a renaissance in the scientific investigation of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic compounds. It is studied for the treatment of many psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. The treatment is always done in the setting of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. A little is known about the potential effects, outside of the setting of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy, on people diagnosed with a mental disorder or have a significant trauma history. In this case report, we present a young man who developed posttraumatic stress disorder after a psychedelic experience, induced by both Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) and N, N Dimethyltryptamine (DMT). In the psychedelic experience, a repressed memory of childhood sexual abuse was recovered. To our knowledge, this is the first report on posttraumatic stress disorder onset after a psychedelic experience. We believe that this case report is important since the history of trauma is prevalent among individuals with substance use disorder. Medical staff that treat people with either substance use disorder or trauma should be familiar with irregular presentations, such as the one described in this case.

Rubin-Kahana, D. S., Hassan, A. N., & Le Foll, B. (2021). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After a Psychedelic Experience, a Case Report. Journal of addiction medicine, 15(3), 248–251. https://doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0000000000000734

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LSD and ketanserin and their impact on the human autonomic nervous system

Abstract

The interest in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has sparked again due to its supposed positive effects on psychopathological conditions. Yet, most research focuses on the actions of LSD on the central nervous system. The interaction with the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been neglected so far. Therefore, the aim was to assess the effects of LSD and the serotonin 2A receptor antagonist ketanserin on the ANS as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) measures and their correlation with subjective drug-induced effects in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Thus, ANS activity was derived from electrocardiogram recordings after intake of placebo, LSD or ketanserin, and LSD by calculating R-peak-based measures of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Repeated measure ANOVA and partial correlation for HRV measures and subjective experience questionnaires were performed. LSD predominantly increased sympathetic activity, while ketanserin counteracted this effect on the ANS via an increase of parasympathetic tone. Sympathetic activity was positively and parasympathetic activity negatively associated with psychedelic effects of LSD. Furthermore, Placebo HRV measures predicted subjective experiences after LSD intake. The association between trait ANS activity and LSD-induced subjective experiences may serve as a candidate biomarker set for the effectiveness of LSD in the treatment of psychopathological conditions.

Olbrich, S., Preller, K. H., & Vollenweider, F. X. (2021). LSD and ketanserin and their impact on the human autonomic nervous system. Psychophysiology, 58(6), e13822. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13822

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Hallucinogenic/psychedelic 5HT2A receptor agonists as rapid antidepressant therapeutics: Evidence and mechanisms of action

Abstract

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most prevalent mental health disorders worldwide, and it is associated with a reduced quality of life and enormous costs to health care systems. Available drug treatments show low-to-moderate response in most patients, with almost a third of patients being non-responders (treatment-resistant). Furthermore, most currently available medications need several weeks to achieve therapeutic effects, and the long-term use of these drugs is often associated with significant unwanted side effects and resultant reductions in treatment compliance. Therefore, more effective, safer, and faster-acting antidepressants with enduring effects are needed. Together with ketamine, psychedelics (or classic or serotoninergic hallucinogens) such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and ayahuasca are among the few compounds with recent human evidence of fast-acting antidepressant effects. Several studies in the 1950s to 1970s reported antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of these drugs, which are being confirmed by modern trials (LSD, one trial; psilocybin, five trials; ayahuasca, two trials). The effects of these drugs appear to be produced primarily by their agonism at serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors, especially the 5-HT2A receptor. Considering the overall burden of MDD and the necessity of new therapeutic options, the promising (but currently limited) evidence of safety and efficacy of psychedelics has encouraged the scientific community to explore more fully their beneficial effects in MDD.

Dos Santos, R. G., Hallak, J. E., Baker, G., & Dursun, S. (2021). Hallucinogenic/psychedelic 5HT2A receptor agonists as rapid antidepressant therapeutics: Evidence and mechanisms of action. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 35(4), 453–458. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881120986422

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Lysergic acid diethylamide differentially modulates the reticular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and infralimbic prefrontal cortex: An in vivo electrophysiology study in male mice

Abstract

Background: The reticular thalamus gates thalamocortical information flow via finely tuned inhibition of thalamocortical cells in the mediodorsal thalamus. Brain imaging studies in humans show that the psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) modulates activity and connectivity within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, altering consciousness. However, the electrophysiological effects of LSD on the neurons in these brain areas remain elusive.

Methods: We employed in vivo extracellular single-unit recordings in anesthetized adult male mice to investigate the dose-response effects of cumulative LSD doses (5-160 µg/kg, intraperitoneal) upon reticular thalamus GABAergic neurons, thalamocortical relay neurons of the mediodorsal thalamus, and pyramidal neurons of the infralimbic prefrontal cortex.

Results: LSD decreased spontaneous firing and burst-firing activity in 50% of the recorded reticular thalamus neurons in a dose-response fashion starting at 10 µg/kg. Another population of neurons (50%) increased firing and burst-firing activity starting at 40 µg/kg. This modulation was accompanied by an increase in firing and burst-firing activity of thalamocortical neurons in the mediodorsal thalamus. On the contrary, LSD excited infralimbic prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons only at the highest dose tested (160 µg/kg). The dopamine D2 receptor (D2) antagonist haloperidol administered after LSD increased burst-firing activity in the reticular thalamus neurons inhibited by LSD, decreased firing and burst-firing activity in the mediodorsal thalamus, and showed a trend towards further increasing the firing activity of neurons of the infralimbic prefrontal cortex.

Conclusion: LSD modulates firing and burst-firing activity of reticular thalamus neurons and disinhibits mediodorsal thalamus relay neurons at least partially in a D2-mediated fashion. These effects of LSD on thalamocortical gating could explain its consciousness-altering effects in humans.

Inserra, A., De Gregorio, D., Rezai, T., Lopez-Canul, M. G., Comai, S., & Gobbi, G. (2021). Lysergic acid diethylamide differentially modulates the reticular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and infralimbic prefrontal cortex: An in vivo electrophysiology study in male mice. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 35(4), 469–482. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881121991569

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Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) promotes social behavior through mTORC1 in the excitatory neurotransmission

Abstract

Clinical studies have reported that the psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) enhances empathy and social behavior (SB) in humans, but its mechanism of action remains elusive. Using a multidisciplinary approach including in vivo electrophysiology, optogenetics, behavioral paradigms, and molecular biology, the effects of LSD on SB and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were studied in male mice. Acute LSD (30 μg/kg) injection failed to increase SB. However, repeated LSD (30 μg/kg, once a day, for 7 days) administration promotes SB, without eliciting antidepressant/anxiolytic-like effects. Optogenetic inhibition of mPFC excitatory neurons dramatically inhibits social interaction and nullifies the prosocial effect of LSD. LSD potentiates the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and 5-HT2A, but not N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and 5-HT1A, synaptic responses in the mPFC and increases the phosphorylation of the serine-threonine protein kinases Akt and mTOR. In conditional knockout mice lacking Raptor (one of the structural components of the mTORC1 complex) in excitatory glutamatergic neurons (Raptor f/f :Camk2alpha-Cre), the prosocial effects of LSD and the potentiation of 5-HT2A/AMPA synaptic responses were nullified, demonstrating that LSD requires the integrity of mTORC1 in excitatory neurons to promote SB. Conversely, in knockout mice lacking Raptor in GABAergic neurons of the mPFC (Raptor f/f :Gad2-Cre), LSD promotes SB. These results indicate that LSD selectively enhances SB by potentiating mPFC excitatory transmission through 5-HT2A/AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling. The activation of 5-HT2A/AMPA/mTORC1 in the mPFC by psychedelic drugs should be explored for the treatment of mental diseases with SB impairments such as autism spectrum disorder and social anxiety disorder.

De Gregorio, D., Popic, J., Enns, J. P., Inserra, A., Skalecka, A., Markopoulos, A., Posa, L., Lopez-Canul, M., Qianzi, H., Lafferty, C. K., Britt, J. P., Comai, S., Aguilar-Valles, A., Sonenberg, N., & Gobbi, G. (2021). Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) promotes social behavior through mTORC1 in the excitatory neurotransmission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(5), e2020705118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020705118

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