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5-MeO-DMT

Synthesis and Characterization of 5-MeO-DMT Succinate for Clinical Use

Abstract

To support clinical use, a multigram-scale process has been developed to provide 5-MeO-DMT, a psychedelic natural product found in the parotid gland secretions of the toad, Incilius alvarius. Several synthetic routes were initially explored, and the selected process featured an optimized Fischer indole reaction to 5-MeO-DMT freebase in high-yield, from which the 1:1 succinate salt was produced to provide 136 g of crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with 99.86% peak area by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a net yield of 49%. The report provides in-process monitoring, validated analytical methods, impurity formation and removal, and solid-state characterization of the API essential for subsequent clinical development.

Sherwood, A. M., Claveau, R., Lancelotta, R., Kaylo, K. W., & Lenoch, K. (2020). Synthesis and Characterization of 5-MeO-DMT Succinate for Clinical Use. ACS omega, 5(49), 32067–32075. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05099

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Anti-inflammatory activity of ayahuasca: therapeutical implications in neurological and psychiatric diseases

Abstract

Ayahuasca is a decoction with psychoactive properties, used for millennia for therapeutic and religious purposes by indigenous groups and the population of amazonian countries. As described in this narrative review, it is essentially constituted by β-carbolines and tryptamines, and it has therapeutic effects on behavioral disorders due to the inhibition of the monoamine oxidase enzyme and the activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, demonstrated through preclinical and clinical studies. It was recently observed that the pharmacological response presented by ayahuasca is linked to its anti-inflammatory action, attributed mainly to dimethyltryptamines (N, N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine), which act as endogenous systemic regulators of inflammation and immune homeostasis, also through sigma-1 receptors. Therefore, since neuroinflammation is among the main pathophysiological mechanisms related to the development of neurological and psychiatric diseases, we suggest, based on the available evidence, that ayahuasca is a promising and very safe therapeutic strategy since extremely high doses are required to reach toxicity. However, even so, additional studies are needed to confirm such evidence, as well as the complete elucidation of the mechanisms involved.

da Silva, M. G., Daros, G. C., & de Bitencourt, R. M. (2021). Anti-inflammatory activity of ayahuasca: therapeutical implications in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Behavioural brain research, 400, 113003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.113003

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Anxiety-like behavior induced by salicylate depends on age and can be prevented by a single dose of 5-MeO-DMT

Abstract

Salicylate intoxication is a cause of tinnitus and comorbidly associated with anxiety in humans. In a previous work, we showed that salicylate induces anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal type 2 theta oscillations (theta2) in mice. Here we investigate if the anxiogenic effect of salicylate is dependent on age and previous tinnitus experience. We also tested whether a single dose of DMT can prevent this effect. Using microwire electrode arrays, we recorded local field potential in young (4-5- month-old) and old (11-13-month-old) mice to study the electrophysiological effect of tinnitus in the ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in an open field arena and elevated plus maze 1h after salicylate (300mg/kg) injection. We found that anxiety-like behavior and increase in theta2 oscillations (4-6 Hz), following salicylate pre-treatment, only occurs in young (normal hearing) mice. We also show that theta2 and slow gamma oscillations increase in the vHipp and mPFC in a complementary manner during anxiety tests in the presence of salicylate. Finally, we show that pre-treating mice with a single dose of the hallucinogenic 5-MeO-DMT prevents anxiety-like behavior and the increase in theta2 and slow gamma oscillations after salicylate injection in normal hearing young mice. This work further support the hypothesis that anxiety-like behavior after salicylate injection is triggered by tinnitus and require normal hearing. Moreover, our results show that hallucinogenic compounds can be effective in treating tinnitus-related anxiety.

Winne, J., Boerner, B. C., Malfatti, T., Brisa, E., Doerl, J., Nogueira, I., Leão, K. E., & Leão, R. N. (2020). Anxiety-like behavior induced by salicylate depends on age and can be prevented by a single dose of 5-MeO-DMT. Experimental neurology, 326, 113175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113175

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A single inhalation of vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in a naturalistic setting is related to sustained enhancement of satisfaction with life, mindfulness-related capacities, and a decrement of psychopathological symptoms

Abstract

BACKGROUND: 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (hereinafter referred to as 5-MeO-DMT) is a psychedelic substance found in the secretion from the parotoid glands of the Bufo alvarius toad. Inhalation of vapor from toad secretion containing 5-MeO-DMT has become popular in naturalistic settings as a treatment of mental health problems or as a means for spiritual exploration. However, knowledge of the effects of 5-MeO-DMT in humans is limited.
AIMS: The first objective of this study was to assess sub-acute and long-term effects of inhaling vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-MeO-DMT on affect and cognition. The second objective was to assess whether any changes were associated with the psychedelic experience.
METHODS: Assessments at baseline, within 24 h and 4 weeks following intake, were made in 42 individuals who inhaled vapor from dried toad secretion at several European locations.
RESULTS: Relative to baseline, ratings of satisfaction with life and convergent thinking significantly increased right after intake and were maintained at follow-up 4 weeks later. Ratings of mindfulness also increased over time and reached statistical significance at 4 weeks. Ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress decreased after the session, and reached significance at 4 weeks. Participants that experienced high levels of ego dissolution or oceanic boundlessness during the session displayed higher ratings of satisfaction with life and lower ratings of depression and stress.
CONCLUSION: A single inhalation of vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-MeO-DMT produces sub-acute and long-term changes in affect and cognition in volunteers. These results warrant exploratory research into therapeutic applications of 5-MeO-DMT.
Uthaug, M. V., Lancelotta, R., van Oorsouw, K., Kuypers, K. P. C., Mason, N., Rak, J., … & Ramaekers, J. G. (2019). A single inhalation of vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in a naturalistic setting is related to sustained enhancement of satisfaction with life, mindfulness-related capacities, and a decrement of psychopathological symptoms. Psychopharmacology236(9), 2653-2666., https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-019-05236-w
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