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Autistic Schizophrenic Children: An Experiment in the Use of D-Lysergic Acid Diethyladmide (LSD-25)


Since the hallucinogenic properties of D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) were accidentally discovered by Hoffman in 1943 there has been wide experimentation with the drug designed to test its properties both as a psychotomimetic and as a therapeutic agent. It has been considered by some investigators as having great value in revealing the nature of the schizophrenic state and thereby advancing the understanding that leads to progress in therapy. However, other investigators, while acknowledging the undoubted psychic effects of the drug, insist that the LSD experience cannot be equated with naturally occurring psychosis.1 It is not the first psychopharmaceutical agent to be used as an adjunct to psychotherapy; most of its predecessors were greeted with equal enthusiasm by some because of their action in unlocking the gates of repression and thus leading to disinhibition and catharsis. In fact, according to Hoch,2 careful studies…

Freedman, A. M., Ebin, E. V., & Wilson, E. A. (1962). Autistic schizophrenic children: An experiment in the use of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). Archives of General Psychiatry, 6(3), 203-213.
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Influence of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25) on Subjective Time

Aronson, H., Silverstein, A. B., & Klee, G. D. (1959). Influence of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) on subjective time. AMA archives of general psychiatry1(5), 469-472., 10.1001/archpsyc.1959.03590050037003
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Psychopathology and Psychophysiology of Minimal LSD-25 Dosage


Despite 14 years of investigation, as intensive as accorded any biologically active chemical, a gap remains in the systematic description of human response to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). The dramatic schizophrenic-like symptoms after doses of 40μg to 100μg have drawn the main interest. The threshold for activity is placed at 20μg by general consensus, while perfunctory administration of smaller doses has left their effect uncertain. Accompanying those pharmacologic demonstrations has been the controversy whether LSD symptoms simulate the psychopathology of schizophrenia1 or can be better explained as a toxic organic psychosis.2 One of these alternatives might be favored by its resemblance to the complete dosage-response relationship of LSD. It is unfortunate for analogical comparison that early stages of toxic psychosis have rarely been described in a psychopathological framework3; on the other hand, there is a firm basis for comparison with various schizophrenic processes. This preliminary note reports

Greiner, T., Burch, N. R., & Edelberg, R. (1958). Psychopathology and psychophysiology of minimal LSD-25 dosage: A preliminary dosage-response spectrum. AMA Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry79(2), 208-210., 10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340020088016
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5‐Hydroxytryptamine. Pharmacological action and destruction in perfused lungs


1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (HT) caused vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction in cats’ lungs perfused with blood. These actions were antagonized by dihydroergotamine or lysergic acid diethylamide.

2. The HT-equivalent of the plasma was estimated by extraction with acetone and assay on rat’s uterus in comparison with synthetic HT. This was low immediately after bleeding, but rose rapidly to about 1 mg. per litre.
3. The HT-equivalent of the plasma fell exponentially during perfusion with a halving time of 4-20 min.

4. When the rate of circulation was increased the rate of disappearance of HT rose.

Gaddum, J. H., Hebb, C. O., Silver, A., & Swan, A. A. B. (1953). 5‐Hydroxytryptamine. Pharmacological action and destruction in perfused lungs. Quarterly journal of experimental physiology and cognate medical sciences, 38(4), 255-262.
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Mental changes experimentally produced by d-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate

Deshon, H. J., Rinkel, M., & Solomon, H. C. (1952). Mental changes experimentally produced by LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate). Psychiatric Quarterly26(1), 33-53., 10.1007/BF01568448
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27 June - Spiritual & Existential Dimensions in Psychedelic Care: Challenges & Insights