OPEN Foundation

N. Singhal

On the Relationship between Classic Psychedelics and Suicidality: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Use of classic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin, ayahuasca, and lysergic acid diethylamide) is increasing, and psychedelic therapy is receiving growing attention as a novel mental health intervention. Suicidality remains a potential safety concern associated with classic psychedelics and is, concurrently, a mental health concern that psychedelic therapy may show promise in targeting. Accordingly, further understanding of the relationship between classic psychedelics and suicidality is needed. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the relationship between classic psychedelics (both non-clinical psychedelic use and psychedelic therapy) and suicidality. We identified a total of 64 articles, including 41 articles on the association between non-clinical classic psychedelic use and suicidality and 23 articles on the effects of psychedelic therapy on suicidality. Findings on the association between lifetime classic psychedelic use and suicidality were mixed, with studies finding positive, negative, and no significant association. A small number of reports of suicide and decreased suicidality following non-clinical classic psychedelic use were identified. Several cases of suicide in early psychedelic therapy were identified; however, it was unclear whether this was due to psychedelic therapy itself. In recent psychedelic therapy clinical trials, we found no reports of increased suicidality and preliminary evidence for acute and sustained decreases in suicidality following treatment. We identify some remaining questions and provide suggestions for future research on the association between classic psychedelics and suicidality.

Zeifman, R. J., Singhal, N., Breslow, L., & Weissman, C. R. (2021). On the Relationship between Classic Psychedelics and Suicidality: A Systematic Review. ACS pharmacology & translational science, 4(2), 436–451. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.1c00024

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Rapid and sustained decreases in suicidality following a single dose of ayahuasca among individuals with recurrent major depressive disorder: results from an open-label trial

Abstract

Rationale: Suicidality is a major public health concern with limited treatment options. Accordingly, there is a need for innovative interventions for suicidality. Preliminary evidence indicates that treatment with the psychedelic ayahuasca may lead to decreases in depressive symptoms among individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there remains limited understanding of whether ayahuasca also leads to reductions in suicidality.

Objective: To examine the acute and post-acute effect of ayahuasca on suicidality among individuals with MDD.

Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of an open-label trial in which individuals with recurrent MDD received a single dose of ayahuasca (N = 17). Suicidality was assessed at baseline; during the intervention; and 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after the intervention.

Results: Among individuals with suicidality at baseline (n = 15), there were significant acute (i.e., 40, 80, 140, and 180 min after administration) and post-acute (1, 7, 14, and 21 days after administration) decreases in suicidality following administration of ayahuasca. Post-acute effect sizes for decreases in suicidality were large (Hedges’ g = 1.31-1.75), with the largest effect size 21 days after the intervention (g = 1.75).

Conclusions: When administered in the appropriate context, ayahuasca may lead to rapid and sustained reductions in suicidality among individuals with MDD. Randomized, double-blind studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm this early finding.

Zeifman, R. J., Singhal, N., Dos Santos, R. G., Sanches, R. F., de Lima Osório, F., Hallak, J., & Weissman, C. R. (2021). Rapid and sustained decreases in suicidality following a single dose of ayahuasca among individuals with recurrent major depressive disorder: results from an open-label trial. Psychopharmacology, 238(2), 453–459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-020-05692-9

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21 March - Ketamine’s Evolution in Mental Health Care

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