OPEN Foundation

Close this search box.

The use of ketamine as an antidepressant: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Share This Post



The current meta-analysis examines the effects of ketamine infusion on depressive symptoms over time in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD).


Following a systematic review of the literature, data were extracted from 21 studies (n  = 437 receiving ketamine) and analysed at four post-infusion time points (4 h, 24 h, 7 days and 12–14 days). The moderating effects of several factors were assessed including: repeat/single infusion, diagnosis, open-label/participant-blind infusion, pre–post/placebo-controlled design and the sex of patients.


Effect sizes were significantly larger for repeat than single infusion at 4 h, 24 h and 7 days. For single infusion studies, effect sizes were large and significant at 4 h, 24 h and 7 days. The percentage of males was a predictor of antidepressant response at 7 days. Effect sizes for open-label and participant-blind infusions were not significantly different at any time point.


Single ketamine infusions elicit a significant antidepressant effect from 4 h to 7 days; the small number of studies at 12–14 days post infusion failed to reach significance. Results suggest a discrepancy in peak response time depending upon primary diagnosis — 24 h for MDD and 7 days for BD. The majority of published studies have used pre–post comparison; further placebo-controlled studies would help to clarify the effect of ketamine over time.

Coyle, C. M., & Laws, K. R. (2015). The use of ketamine as an antidepressant: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 30(3), 152-163.
Link to full text

OPEN Foundation

Join ICPR 2022 Online!

ICPR features world-leading experts from many academic disciplines, including psychiatry, psychology, neuroscience, anthropology, ethnobotany, and philosophy who come together to give a scientific conference for academics, therapists, researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and members of the public. Get your ICPR 2022 livestream ticket today and use the code OPENLIVE30 at checkout for a €30 discount.

Learn More


Subscribe to our new OPEN-Minded newsletter to stay in the loop, hear about our events, and become a part of a community dedicated to advancing psychedelics.

By clicking subscribe, I confirm to receive emails from the OPEN Foundation and agree with its privacy policy.