OPEN Foundation

The Ups and Downs of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Linking Subjective Effects to Spontaneous Brain Function

Share This Post

Share on facebook
Share on linkedin
Share on twitter
Share on email


Psychoactive drugs, especially drugs with so-called psychedelic properties, exert profound effects on sensory perception, cognition, and emotion by modulating target neurotransmitter systems. The compound 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exerts stimulant and psychedelic effects through its actions on dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, [5-HT]) transporters, by inhibiting their reuptake and stimulating their release. In addition to producing euphoria and positive mood, MDMA appears to produce unique “prosocial” or “empathogenic” feelings.

de Wit, H., Gorka, S. M., & Phan, K. L. (2015). The Ups and Downs of 3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Linking Subjective Effects to Spontaneous Brain Function. Biological psychiatry, 78(8), 519-521.
Link to full text

OPEN Foundation


Subscribe to the OPEN Foundation’s newsletter to stay in the loop, hear about our events, and become a part of a community dedicated to advancing psychedelics.

By clicking subscribe, I confirm to receive emails from the OPEN Foundation and agree with its privacy policy.