Intranasal drug delivery (INDD) systems offer a route to the brain that bypasses problems related to gastrointestinal absorption, first-pass metabolism, and the blood-brain barrier; onset of therapeutic action is rapid, and the inconvenience and discomfort of parenteral administration are avoided. INDD has found several applications in neuropsychiatry, such as to treat migraine, acute and chronic pain, Parkinson disease, disorders of cognition, autism, schizophrenia, social phobia, and depression. INDD has also been used to test experimental drugs, such as peptides, for neuropsychiatric indications; these drugs cannot easily be administered by other routes. This article examines the advantages and applications of INDD in neuropsychiatry; provides examples of test, experimental, and approved INDD treatments; and focuses especially on the potential of intranasal ketamine for the acute and maintenance therapy of refractory depression.
Andrade, C. (2015). Intranasal drug delivery in neuropsychiatry: focus on intranasal ketamine for refractory depression. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 76(5), e628-31. https://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15f10026