To determine if the immunomodulatory effect of ketamine is relevant to its rapid antidepressant activity, cultured human astroglial cells were incubated with ketamine, cytokine mix, or both. At 24h, ketamine dose-dependently (100-500 μM) decreased IL-6 and TNFα production and gene expression and, at clinically relevant concentration (100 μM), augmented IL-β release and gene expression in both unstimulated and cytokine-stimulated cells. In unstimulated cells, ketamine also increased IL-8 production and mRNA expression. The reduction in IL-6 mRNA was significant within 1h in unstimulated cells and at 4h after stimulation. Ketamine suppressed the production of the only established depression-relevant proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNFα.
Yuhas, Y., Ashkenazi, S., Berent, E., & Weizman, A. (2015). Immunomodulatory activity of ketamine in human astroglial A172 cells: Possible relevance to its rapid antidepressant activity. Journal of neuroimmunology, 282, 33-38. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.03.012
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